The Umbrella Movement is a loose pro-democracy political movement that was created spontaneously during the Hong Kong protests of 2014. Its name derives from the recognition of the umbrella as a symbol of defiance and resistance against the Hong Kong government, and the united grass-roots objection to the decision of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress (NPCSC) of August 31.
The movement consists of individuals numbering in the tens of thousands who participated in the protests that began on September 28, 2014.
The term ‘Occupy Central’ is commonly used to describe the occupy campaign in Hong Kong, named after a group that has advocated a civil disobedience protest since 2013. The name ‘Umbrella Revolution’ was coined by Adam Cotton on Twitter, September 26, in reference to the umbrellas used to defend against tear gas, and quickly gained widespread acceptance. The name was later rejected by some prominent members and supporters of the Occupy Central campaign uncomfortable with the supposed violent connotations of the name, and concerned as to how it would be perceived by Chinese authorities. They emphasized that the movement was not a color revolution but rather a demand for free and fair elections, and proposed the name ‘Umbrella Movement’ as an alternative.
Since there is no true leadership or formal organization overall, both names have been used by the participants at the same time. Some participants that oppose peaceful protests, including Civic Passion, oppose the name of Umbrella Movement.